Papal Rome is the fourth and final kingdom of the earth in Daniel's vision in the Holy Bible. It's represented as a part of the Ten Headed Beast. Rome and the Papal control are the Little Horn of the Beast.
The church has power that is unrivaled to any physical or military power in the world, giving it a hidden element of control over all key nations.
It is perhaps most important to note that the Catholic Church is two different organizations, as represented by the fact that the Vatican is built on the old site of the Temple of Janus. There are two different operating doctrines in the Catholic Church; one for the masses, which is a document that shows what everyone believes on the surface. Over 99% of Catholics only know this doctrine. Then there is the inner doctrine that is followed by a group called the Jesuits. The Jesuits control the military of countless nations, giving Rome the great control of this Ten Horned Beast.
It is very important to understand before starting this that the Holy Bible must be read as it was intended. The original Hebrew writings of the Old Testament show that the closest English-based translation of the Bible is the King James version. Many newer versions contain omissions of entire statements and key words and phrases. With that established, it's always best to reference the King James Version of the Bible.
In the original Greek translation of the New Testament, the word "petros" is used for Peter's name. In Greek, petros means a detached boulder. Jesus then says he will build a church on the "petra" which is another word for rock. So the sentence in its native tongue makes more sense because the words sound very similar and that may have been part of the comparison. But what is certainly not stated is for Peter to become the ordained leader of some physical church. If Peter was chosen as a leader like Catholicism insinuates, then why was there so much disagreement between the disciples over who was in charge?
Rome sought to control Jerusalem, and in the year 70 A.D., prophecy was fulfilled and Israel fell, with the Temple of Solomon being destroyed by Rome, crippling the Holy place where sacrifices to God were once made; but it was no longer needed after the Blood of Jesus atoned for all sins.
Constantine and Sabbath
In the year 321 A.D., Roman Emperor Constantine made a declaration that the day of worship was being transferred from Sabbath to Sunday to honor the king of Babylon. Years later this law was enforced by death.
Virtually all Protestants and those outside of Rome's grip continued to keep the Sabbath, especially tribes of Christians in North Africa. By this point, Christianity had spread out of Jerusalem and was popular in South Europe and North Africa.
Versions of the Catholic Bible are now changed to omit the importance of the Fourth Commandment from God, something that was warned against with massive consequences.
Creation of Islam
For more on this please see: Islam